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Peripheral Arterial Disease is a disease when plaque accumulates and travels through the body. Atherosclerosis develops when plaque builds up in the body’s arteries. Plaque can harden the arteries over a period of time. The hardened arteries limit the flow of blood to the body and organs.

Symptoms of Peripheral Artery Disease

Pain caused by a decrease of blood flow during exercise is claudication. This condition is mostly associated with the legs but it can also occur in the arms as well.

Diabetic Ulcers
A diabetic foot ulcer is an open sore commonly located on the bottom of the foot. Ulcers can occur for the following reasons: foot deformities,decreased circulation, irritation, and injury, decreased sensations, and the length of illness. Vascular diseases can worsen an ulcer on the foot, thus decreasing the body’s healing capabilities and increases the risk for acquiring an infection.

Treatment Options for Peripheral Artery Disease

An angiogram is a minor procedure that uses a dye and x-ray to take images of the flow of blood in either a vein or artery. Arteries in the neck, arms, head, legs, chest and belly can all be viewed with an angiogram. During this test, a catheter is placed into a blood vessel in the groin and the catheter is maneuvered to reach the area to be studied. Then dye is injected into the catheter in the vessel to make the artery or vein show on X-ray. An angiogram can discover a bulging in a blood vessel known as an aneurysm. It can also show a blockage in a blood vessel that alters the flow of blood.

Angioplasty also known as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is a procedure in which a catheter is inserted through an artery or vein and maneuvered to the place where the artery has a blockage.When the catheter reaches the blocked artery, a balloon on the end of a catheter inflates for a moment.The pressure from the balloon opens the plaque and improves blood flow.

What is an atherectomy procedure for atherosclerosis / PAD / PVD?
An atherectomy procedure is a catheter with a cutter on the end to remove plaque from the inside a blood vessel. The catheter, like an angioplasty, is inserted into the artery in the groin through a small puncture and is performed under moderate sedation. The catheter has a chamber where the shaved plaque collects, which allows the plaque to be removed with the device. The process can be repeated several times during treatment to remove a large amount of plaque from the artery, thus decreasing a blockage from atherosclerosis.

Peripheral artery bypass-leg
A peripheral artery bypass is a surgical procedure used to shunt the blood supply around a blockage in one of your legs. Plaque can accumulate inside the arteries and eventually block them completely.A graft is what is used to replace or reroute the blocked area of the artery.The graft may be a plastic synthetic tube, or it could also be a vein taken from your body during surgery.Your surgeon will create an incision over the artery that is occluded .After moving tissue and muscle out of the way, the surgeon then places clamps on either side of the blocked artery. The graft is then secured in place with sutures. The surgeon then will make sure you have adequate circulation to your lower leg.Then the incision is sutured and staples may be used for closure as well.

Peripheral stents help to keep open an artery or vein so that blood can flow through the blocked blood vessel, and may be used to aid in an aneurysm repair. A stent is a small, cylinder-like metal mesh tube that props open the artery and remains in place permanently. The stent is inserted through a catheter and then places in the peripheral artery.